The temple was constructed and excavated in the rock by Ramsés II to commemorate his victory in Kadesh's battle (1274 B.C.). It is dedicated to the worship of the own Ramsés (the Pharaohs were considered to be gods) and of the big deities of the Former Egypt Amón, Ra y Ptah.

Abu Simbel means " pure mountain ", and is placed to the left margin of the Nile. It is a question of the most impressive monument of this region close to the temple dedicated to Nefertari. His discovery owes Burckhardt to itself in 1813, who it found covered almost completely by the sand, but it was Belzoni in 1817 the first one to enter his interior. Both temples that are situated in Abu Simbel, were declared Heritage of the Humanity by the UNESCO in 1979.

Nowadays due to the international help that made possible the movement of both temples to a higher area when there was carried out the construction of Assuán's great dam, this monument continues being one of the most famous and impressive of the whole Egypt.